I have been asked what the closest equivalent Statistics Canada survey would be compared to the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The user used to use Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), but eventually stopped as it was available only in RDCs. (I think SLID is the closest equivalent.)
A few other data sources to consider would be the LAD (Longitudinal Administrative Databank) and LISA (Longitudinal and International Study of Adults). As well, you could look into the CIS (Canadian Income Survey) which is the official survey that followed SLID, however it is not longitudinal, but cross-sectional.