Friday, October 27, 2006

Household and the Environment Survey (HES): 3881


A patron found the publication "Households and the environment 1994" (11-526) and is interested in the data which were used for this publication, which appears to be the Household(s) (and the) Environment Survey (HES) conducted in 1991 and 1994 (and again earlier this year). Any chance that they might be made available under DLI?


These files are already present on the FTP site, though it is not obvious.

The Household and Environment Survey was released as part of the Survey of Consumer Finances HIFE component:

The Microdata file for SCF 1991 (1990 Income) has data for:
1) Survey of Consumer Finances, 1991
2) Household Facilities and Equipment Survey, 1991
3) Shelter Cost Survey, 1990
4) Environment Survey, 1991

And the microdata file for SCF 1994 (1993 income) has data for:
1) Survey of Consumer Finances 1994 (1993 Income)
2) Household Facilities and Equipment Survey, 1994
3) Household Environment Survey, 1994

Trade Data


A prof is asking for the following:

- Canadian exports by country by 2 digit NAICS, for 1988-present, at a quarterly frequency; also similar data but for manufacturing at the 3 digit NAICS level

- Canadian exports at the 4-digit SIC level to the countries of the U.S., U.K., Japan, China, France, Germany, and the
Netherlands (there might be a few more later), from 1985 to the latest possible year as I think SIC data ends in 2002), at an
annual frequency.

I'm at a loss here; the prof said he was referred to me by someone at STC, which suggests that I should have access to what he wants, but I'm not finding anything. Suggestions would be welcomed!


Although data is not collected at the NAICS level, it is collected at the SCG/HS/CT code level. We do have an excel spreadsheet that offers the correspondence between HS/CT code and NAICS (it is found on the FTP under dli/standard_classifications/ct-naics). Documentation is available to explain it in a little more detail.

The spreadsheet maps to the five or six digit NAICS - not two as requested.

Canadian Time Use Pilot Study 1981


I have had a request from a researcher for the Canadian Time Use Pilot Study 1981. It doesn't appear in the DLI collection, and hasn't been mentioned on the dlilist. Given that it is a pilot study, I am not optimistic that there will be a PUMF. Would it be possible to get confirmation if there is a PUMF for this survey, and if there should be, might we get it through the DLI?


The PUMF was not released by STC for the Canadian Time Use Pilot Study (1981).

Alternative to QWIFS


We have been subscribing to QWIFS, which I have just learned is being phased out. Can someone remind me what other institutions are offering similar access to DLI survey data? I'd like to look into the options.


1. The alternatives that I know of are:
SDA (U of T)
Sherlock (Quebec - but is being phased out and they are moving to IDLS until another solution is identified)
LANDRU (University of Calgary, but I am not sure if it is a subscription process)

2. Through a University grant the LANDRU interface has been improved (enhanced varaiable search capability, .por output files among other things) and we are madly adding content to catch up for the time when LANDRU was not being updated. We're getting there. There is no charge for using the LANDRU system, certainly for this fiscal year.

3. We also subscribe to UT/DLS Microdata analysis and subsetting service.
We allow off campus access via our proxy set up

A password is not required and it does the same sort of analysis and subsetting as QWIFS but uses SDA instead of SPSS. Our faculty like it and it does neat graphs.



A researcher here wants to look at connections between grade point average and socio-economic status. I've searched CANSIM, DLI collection, Statistics Canada web site and the DLI list archives, finding no results for GPA or "grade point average". Does anyone know of any surveys that collect this information? Here is the researcher's question:

"We would also like to know whether they have any survey data that collects information on GPA of students in Universities and Colleges along with their socio-economic background."


I think that you'll want to look at microdata sources and not aggregate sources, such as CANSIM. For example, the Student Financial Survey, 2001-02 has grade point average in it. This survey was conducted by EKOS Research Associates for the Canadian Millenium Scholarship Foundation.

Updated products - IALSS

International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS)- 2003

The 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS) is the Canadian component of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL). The main purpose of the survey was to find out how well adults used printed information to function in society. Survey data include background information (demographic, education, language, labour force, training, literacy uses, information and communication technology, income) and psychometric results of respondents' proficiency along four skill domains: prose and document literacy, numeracy and problem-solving.

FTP: dli/ialss/2003

Follow up

This survey has two components:
1) International component: Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL)
2) Canadian component: International Adult Literacy Survey (IALSS)

The data accessible in the DLI collection are from the international component, therefore will be accessible under ALL.

Once the data for the Canadian component become available, it will be accessible under IALSS.

In order to facilitate access, the two surveys on the FTP and web sites will be cross-referenced.

Imports / Exports by commodity


The latest issue of both Imports by commodity and Exports by commodity have been released by Stats Can in the last few days. In the SC online catalogue "Information for libraries" says that the Export by commodity CD-Rom is available to DLI.

On the other hand, Imports by commodity is apparently not available to DLI.

Are both these statements correct? If so, why can we get Exports but not Imports?


I just received an e-mail from Tony Moren explaining that there was an error in the DLI yes/no flags in the catalogue. According to Tony, the product flag should state DSP-yes, DLI -no.

Both imports and exports products will be made available through the DSP program.



I have been exploring the Stats Canada CANSIM Tables. I have a class of Nursing PHD students coming on Tuesday October 31, and I am not sure what to say about CANSIM. Sometimes I discover a CAMSIM Table and it is free. Then, I take another path, (to get back to the table quickly), and the same CANSIM Table is only available for a price.

I would like to understand what is going on with the CANSIM Tables and how to systematically find the free access paths to the CAMSIM Tables. How many of the CANSIM Tables are free and under what conditions? How can we know in advance if the table is available free and discover the path to the free version? At this point, it all seems rather hit and miss.

Here are some examples:

EXAMPLE A: (the EXE links fail, but you can still follow the path)
When I browse to Table 102-0535, via the following steps, I am asked to pay $3.00 to see the table.

  1. (Stats Canada Home page)


    (Welcome to CANSIM)

  3. Select Browse by Subject





    (Table 102-0535)

  7. Select parameters and eventually arrive at a page that says: 1 payable series @ $3.00

When I browse to the same table the following route, I can access Table 102-0535 for free, as follows:

    (Causes of Death Main Page)

    (Causes of Death html)

    (Data Tables)

    (Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O00 to O99))

  5. select CANSIM and a new window opens
    (titled - CANSIM Table 102-0535)

  6. select parameters and continue

  7. select output format

  8. a table appears with the numbers

As in B above, when I start from a publication that has CANSIM tables referenced as a Related Product, I can get to the Table:

    (Residential Care Facilities Product Main Page)


    (Related Products)

  4. select Table 107-5501.. Can select Parameters and a table is displayed BUT if try to access this same table by following a browse path via the SUBJECTS on the STATS CANADA home page, as described in EXAMPLE A, the notice to pay $3.00 appears.

If I happen to luck out, and find myself at an html publication featuring CANSIM links (as in Examples B & C above), I seem to be able to access the CANSIM TABLES for free. But if I want to get to these same Tables directly using the Subejct Browse path on the StatCan Home page, I seem to have to pay when I get to the CANSIM Table. So, this is all very confusing and seems inconsistent.

As I mentioned above, I have a class of Nursing PHD students coming on Tuesday October 31. I am not sure what to say about CANSIM. Well, I can say that when I do stumble on a free CANSIM Table, that the interface it quite wonderful, so, I am very motivated to understand how to know about, and get to, the free CANSIM Tables at StatsCanada.


The Health Division of Statistics Canada is trying to make as much of their data available free of charge to its users. As CANSIM is a pay-for-use product, a bypass could not be achieved via that databank. However, by creating an HTML document with links directly to CANSIM tables, the users were able to access the stats they needed without paying.

The HTML publication which provides the by-pass to CANSIM for health statistics is entitled "Health Indicators" (catalogue number 81-221-XIE, click on "view" from the main box on the page, and then use the left-hand menu to select "Data tables and maps").

National Accounts also has a similar set-up to by-pass payment to some economic tables. To access this module, visit the Statistics Canada main page ( and continue in English). At the bottom right of the page, we can browse Statistics by subject - click on National Accounts, then you will see a little line at the bottom "Also available: free data tables and comprehensive information from the National Economic Accounts module" - click on the National Economic Accounts link and click on data tables from the main page.

Let us also remember that many series are available in CANSIM on E-STAT which has free access as well. If the time series do not require to be "fresh" (as the E-STAT CANSIM database is only updated once a year during the summer months), this has a practical user interface and usually meets simple student needs.

Longitudinal Administrative Databank


A faculty member is interested in the LAD. Past messages on the list have noted that it's available as a custom tabulation only. Would the researcher be able to access it through a Research Data Centre, or not?


1. A listing of the files found in the RDC at the following link:
I did not see LAD in the listing unfortunately.

Perhaps contacting your local RDC to ask them if you can access the file through their program? The RDC analysts contact information is found at the following link:

2. I just checked with Donna Dosman (U of A RDC) who happened to be down here today and she advises that the LAD will never be available even in the RDC's she indicated that it is so confidential that probably only five or six people in all of Statistics Canada have access.

Ethnic Diversity Survey


I have a student wanting to work with the Ethnic Diversity Survey. She wants to cross-reference survey responses to where the participants lived - either the name or the size of the town. I understand that Stats Can considered and recorded this information when determining who would be asked to participate in the survey, but can my student get at that information? If so, how? W/Could she get this information at an RDC?

She is looking at the influence of the size of cultural communities on the speed of immigrants' integration into the wider society. She wants to compare immigrants/immigrant groups in smaller towns to larger urban centres.


I took a look at the PUMF's codebook for some extra help on this one.

The level of geography reported in the PUMF is CMA (Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Other CMA and non-CMA). Only 42,476 responded to the survey which will make it extremely difficult to find data at a low level of geography when we consider Statistics Canada's confidentiality rules.

I took at look at the RDC's collection
and EDS is listed as an available dataset. Once again, the assessment of place of residence may be a touch tricky due to the small size of the sample.

NLSCY available via DLI


For the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth are the cycles available to us via DLI, longitudinal in nature, or are cross-sectional versions of the long. files available in the RDC?


The NLSCY public files are cross-sectional; the synthetic files are longitudinal, but may only be used for testing programs, not
for analyses.

Profit projections


a) Does Stats Canada do any projecting of profits in the future by industry?

b) BTW, I'm looking for profits of pharmaceutical firms for the past 10 years. So far, all I can determine is to use CANSIM (Table 301-0003 and 301-0006 to get revenues and then subtract cost of goods sold and employee costs to get profits. If anyone has other ideas, I would really appreciate it. There is a NAICS code for these firms (325410).


1. a) As far as I know, Statistics Canada does not project/forecast profits for industry. The only thing we actually forecast is population projections.

2. b) If you subscribe to the Financial Post corporate database, that does contain a profit field (expressed as a percentage).

3. b) Another alternative is to use Strategis's Performance Plus. Industry Canada's web site has a decent interface and your user can pull some stats for 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2002. The profit aspect is already calculated for you and you get a lot in information of interest (COGS, salaries, etc.).

You can access Performance Plus from the following web address:
and click on "Create your own profile" from the main body of the page. Stats for 1993 - 1997 are based on SIC codes and those for 2000 and 2002 are based on NAICS. You can find the concordance between the NAICS code and the SIC code by using the following web page:

(from what I can tell, 325410 is divided into 1) E3712 *Industrial Organic Chemicals n.e.c. and 2) E3741 * Pharmaceutical and Medicine Industry.)

Statistics Canada's Small Business Profiles are also part of the DLI collection, but it sounds like the Performance Plus approach should meet your needs for now.

E-Stat Links


The location of E-stat has changed and we're updating our links. Should we link to the "accept and enter" license page at

Or is it acceptable to link right to E-Stat at

I would rather do the latter - they will be proxied links so off-campus users will have to enter their Malaspina student or employee IDs and PINs to access E-stat.


1. There are at least two factors to take into consideration regarding a local policy of jumping beyond the E-Stat licence page at
your institution. First, E-Stat is available to the public through participating DSP libraries. These libraries need to stipulate the
terms of the E-Stat licence for public usage and it seems most easily done through the E-Stat licence page. Users need to be informed of the licencing terms and while this could be done by providing your own licence page that then jumps beyond the E-Stat licencing page, I don't see any advantage to this approach.

Secondly, E-Stat is also available through DLI and many of us use our own pages to inform our campus users about the terms of the DLI licence. If your institution is a member of _both_ the DSP and DLI, you will want to decide if you should treat these two user communities (i.e., the public and your DLI constituents) differently in how you inform them about the terms of the E-Stat licence. All of our campus users are also part of the public; so you might decide to use the E-Stat licence page and treat both constituencies as one, namely, the public.

Alternatively, you may decide to provide separate access points for your public and campus users or your institution may not be participating in the DSP access to E-Stat. If you are providing access to E-Stat only under the DLI licence and you provide your own prior page describing the terms of the DLI licence, you might decide (for reasons as you indicated below) to jump beyond the E-Stat licence page.

The key is that our users be informed of the terms of the licence prior to using the actual product and, having been informed, their next steps in using the product implies that they agree to abide by these terms.

The DLI Executive group responsible for interpreting licence questions has not yet formally addressed your inquiry; so this statement simply expresses my opinion. But it is the line of argument that I'd take within this group.

2. We can get straight to E-Stat from the university through the proxy server. Transparent to the user.

From home, you need an id and password. Click and enter doesn't work.

3. Last year, there were three tabs on the main page: Overview, Articles and Data. This year, Overview and Articles were combined into a single tab whose file name is Art, and Over is gone. We also made Data the "landing" page; last year the landing page was Overview. One of the reasons for all of these changes is that, now that most publications are free, there is much less need to have E-STAT house its own version of many pages that were for fee last year.

Please link to the E-STAT launch page at:
Students should always enter via the licence page, accepting the agreement. From the E-STAT side-bar, users can access User Guides, CANSIM, census and Search map 2001.

4. The first time users should read the licence and click Accept and Enter. Then from the Table of contents, they can click on Search CANSIM, Search Census and Search map on the E-STAT side-bar.

Frequent users can Accept and Enter the terms of the licence or go directly to the E-STAT side bar.

We designed the page this way so that high school students would not be intimated be the entry process. We expect high school teachers to explain the licence when introducing E-STAT to their students.

Chi square test and census pumf individuals


A researcher has used a stratified cluster sample for Census 2001 Individuals data. As he explained it to me and as I think I understand it, this type of sample cannot be analyzed with SPSS. He mentioned that in censuses of the past there were certain tables that were used but which have now been replaced with a conversion factor.

He has studied the documentation around page 180, but there is no explanation of how to analyze the results by using the chi square test which is the one the researcher has planned to use. Can anyone help with this?


Our methodologist has provided the following information that was requested.

If the researcher took his sample from the 2001 PUMF, then the conversion factors are the factors he's looking for (these are design-effects). In previous censuses, we were calling them "Quality Factors". But they are the same thing. Their function is to convert, by squaring them, simple random sampling variances into variances obtained from the PUMF design plan. We modified the way it was introduced to simplify basic estimations.

The researcher is asking something not simple, though. In fact, simple random chi-square statistics are bias because of the PUMF sampling plan (as the researcher rightfully noted). To transform or to convert these statistics into chi-squares that take into account the sampling plan, he has to divide his chi-square statistics by the corresponding design-effects (conversion factors). But this is only an approximation [see 1, pp. 500 - 507]). The resulting statistics will behave better under the null hypothesis.

[1] Särndal, C.E., Swensson B., Wretman J. Model Assisted Survey Sampling. Springer-Verlag. 1992.

Survey of Electronic Commerce and Technology (SECT)


A faculty member has asked me for the most recent "full" SECT report. I referred him to the April 20, 2006 issue of The Daily and the CANSIM tables mentioned in the text. However, it turns out that he is interested in getting access to Atlantic Canada and SMEs specifically while Canada seems to be the only level of geography available from the CANSIM tables to which I have access.


If the level of geography you seek is not available through CANSIM, perhaps the author division can create a customised product with the level of geography desired. Unfortunately, this will be at a fee if the data is available.

Official release of the 2006 Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) and 2006 Boundary Files

Official release of the 2006 Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) and 2006 Boundary Files - October 18, 2006

The 2006 Standard Geographical Classification and the 2006 Boundary Files for selected geographies are released today. Both products are available free of charge in electronic format only:

The final version of the 2006 SGC Volume I and the print version of the 2006 SGC Volume II will be released on January 16, 2007. Boundary files for the remaining geographic units (except urban area and designated place UA/DPL) will be released on February 14, 2007.

2006 Standard Geographical Classification (SGC):

The Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) is a classification of geographical areas used to collect and disseminate statistics. The 2006 edition replaces the 2001 edition as the official classification for geographical areas for the 2006 Census and other Statistics Canada surveys.

The classification is organized in two volumes: Volume I (Preliminary) The Classification and Volume II Reference Maps.

Volume I (preliminary) released today, contains tables of the names and codes of standard geographical classification units, organized by province and territory and by metropolitan area. Designed as a reference and coding tool, Volume I (preliminary) is available in PDF (12-571-PIE) and HTML (12-571-PWE) formats. The final version of Volume I, to be released on January 16, 2007, will contain additional tables as well as concordances between SGC 2001 and SGC 2006.

Volume I can be accessed at:

Volume II (12-572-XWE) contains reference maps showing boundaries, names, codes and locations of the geographical areas in the classification. The reference maps show census subdivisions, census divisions, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations, and economic regions. The maps can be downloaded for free in PDF format. On January 16, 2007, Volume II will also be released in print version.

Volume II can be accessed at:
The maps can also be accessed directly at:

A summary reference guide explaining the methodology behind the creation of these maps is also available (in PDF (92-149-GIE) or HTML (92-149-GWE) format):
Please note that the summary reference guide released today will be undergoing improvements and enhancements in order to expand content. Subsequent versions of the reference guides will accompany the upcoming reference map releases in January and March 2007.

2006 Boundary Files:

The 2006 Boundary Files (92-160-XWE) portray the geographical limits used for census dissemination and provide a framework for mapping and spatial analysis. The geographical areas covered are those of the 2006 Standard Geographical Classification. There are two types of boundary files: digital and cartographic. Digital files depict the full extent of the geographical areas, including the coastal water area. Cartographic files depict the geographical areas using only the major land mass of Canada and its coastal islands. The files are available in three formats: ArcInfo® (.shp), MapInfo® (.tab) and Geography Markup Language (.gml).

Boundary Files are available for the following geographic units:

* Province/Territory
* Economic region
* Census division
* Census metropolitan area/Census agglomeration
* Census consolidated subdivisions
* Census subdivisions

Three supplementary hydrography layers are also available as a reference layer for the Cartographic Boundary Files (CBF). The following three hydrography layers have been released:

* Lakes and rivers (polygon)
* Rivers (line)
* Coastal waters (polygon)

The 2006 boundary files (3 formats) can be downloaded for free from the following link and are only available for download at the national level:

A summary reference guide is also available (in PDF or HTML format):
Please note that the summary reference guide released today will be undergoing improvements and enhancements in order to expand content and will be reissued in November. Subsequent versions of the reference guides will accompany the upcoming boundary file releases in February and March 2007.

Please note:

1) Users of Netscape and Firefox Internet browsers may have experienced difficulties with the download of the 2006 Road Network File. This technical issue has now been resolved on all download pages, however if users continue to experience difficulties please contact GEO-Help at 1-613-951-3889 to obtain a copy of the data on CD-R.

2) MapInfo users with versions that pre-date MapInfo version 8.0 may experience difficulties opening the Province/Territory and Economic Region cartographic boundary files. This is due to earlier versions of MapInfo having lower restrictions on the number of nodes per object and/or a multi-polygon object limit per record.

3) Any boundary challenges proposed as a result of this release will be dealt with on a case by case basis. For more information please contact GEO-Help at 1-613-951-3889.

Upcoming releases:

January 16, 2007: Reference maps - CSD/DA (without UA/DPL), C(M)A/CT (without UA/DPL), CT/DA, Non-tracted CA/DA (without UA/DPL)

February 14, 2007: Reference products (Illustrated Glossary, Geography Catalogue, Census Dictionary), Boundary files (CT, DA, DB (Dissemination Block), FED2003), Ranked Road Network File (RRNF), Correspondence Files, and Geographic Attribute File (GAF) and GeoSearch (without population and dwelling counts).

March 13, 2007: Population and dwelling counts - highlight tables, Thematic release maps - population and dwelling counts, Geography catalogue (2nd edition), Reference maps - CSD/DA (with UA/DPL), C(M)A/CT (with UA/DPL), Non-tracted CA/DA (with UA/DPL), Boundary Files (UA & DPL), GeoSuite, and Geographic Attribute File (GAF) and GeoSearch (with population and dwelling counts).

Thursday, October 26, 2006

Aboriginal Youth Statistics


I have a prof who is looking for educational statistics for Aboriginal youth since 2001: specifically the number of graduates nation wide, by year.

I did a fair bit of research on Aboriginal youth in the spring, but couldn't find anything that wasn't based on the 2001 Census or the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

Does anyone know of any stats that might be available?


I did perform a search with our Education Division and the data is not available through them. I am not sure who would collect that information outside the Census and the Aboriginal People's Survey.

Provincial Income Tax Rates


Is there a publication or info source where a student could find the provincial personal and corporate tax rates since 1990?

Would this involve going to each provincial revenue department and making an inquiry?


1. Personal back to 1998:
Personal -

Current corporate -

2. I usually go to the print for this question. Most of the annotated income tax acts (e.g. Butterworths, CCH) will include a couple or few years of the rates at the beginning of the book. It means going to a few different yearly editions, but at least all the provinces are in one place!

Preview of products and services, 2006 Census

The 2006 Census dissemination project is pleased to announce the official release of the Preview of products and services, 2006 Census, catalogue no. 92-565-XWE.

The Preview of products and services offers a complete overview of the proposed products and services that will be released based on the 2006 Census of Population and 2006 Census of Agriculture results. Information (where applicable) will include major characteristics and content, "What's new?" in comparison to 2001, levels of geography, availability/delivery methods, release timeframe and pricing.

The preview is now exclusively an Internet product for 2006 and is no longer available in a formalized print format (i.e. newsletter publication); however, a "print-friendly" format is available via the Internet. This product will be updated periodically as details regarding products and services become finalized.

As of 8:30 a.m. (Ottawa time) on October 17, 2006, this product will be available in HTML and PDF on the Internet and can be found by clicking on the Census button located on the sidebar of the Statistics Canada home page, under the heading Recent releases, as well as from the 2006 Census homepage.

Thursday, October 12, 2006

Health survey data linkage


A UBC researcher is interested in the fact that the National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey both contain questions in the final administrative section as to whether respondents are willing to allow linking to their recorded use of provincial health services and whether they are willing to permit sharing the survey data with the province. The researcher is specifically interested in knowing the percentage of respondents who agree to this for each survey. She used the term 'data linkage permission rates.'

Is this something that can be found?


The percentage of respondents who agree to share varies according to the survey and the cycle, but in general, around 95% of them agree. Then, for the percentage of respondents who agree to link, about 95% of these who agreed to share say "yes" to the question. Note that the data for these questions are in the confidential files (Master and Share), not the PUMF. If the researcher is interested to access these files, please inform him of the usual ways (RDCs, remote, custom tabs, etc.).

Monday, October 2, 2006

CCHS 3.1 Documentation


We have been looking at the documentation for the CCHS cycle 3.1, sub-sample

Something does not quite match, namely the topical index and the data dictionary. For sub-samples 2 and 3 the number of pages referred to in the topical index equals the number of pages in the data dictionary. Not so for sub-sample 1: the data dictionary is 313 pages long and the "CCHS Cycle 3.1 - Sub-Sample 1: Topical Index, Public Use Microdata File" states that the
weights are on pages 621 and 622. Obviously the variables found in the data dictionary and its index do not match up.

It is more similar but still not the same as the topical index for the master file - 12 month, which I found on the website at

Could someone please double-check this?


The file that you are referring to is "English DD Topical Index.pdf". This file belong's to the synthetic file(s).

Please use "English DD Alpha Index.pdf" until this Topical Index file is replaced.

Sunday, October 1, 2006

Downloading data files from Firefox or Netscape

Obviously something has changed inside Statcan that now only lets Internet Explorer bring up the html page, explaining dli contacts
can download data files.

I have temporarily taken out the warning page until I can figure out what has changed.

The Web will still check IP,. userid and password before the data can be downloaded.